The reversal of the water flow called backflow and causes the mixing of clean water with unwanted substances such as industrial water or dirty water.  Conditions such as the decrease in public water systems may cause a back flow of water from private property such as swimming pools and irrigation schemes.  The decrease in pressure could be because of a leak in in the system.  Water backflow that contaminate clean water can be prevented from getting back into public water supply pipes through the use of back flow prevention devices.

Back flow can be caused by back pressure and back siphonage.  Pressure lower than that of private systems in supply pipes causes back siphonage.  Back siphonage can happen when the main water supply is interrupted by breaks, repairs or firefighting activities.  Back pressure occurs when there is an increase in private systems water pressure.  Elderly people, children and people with low immunities are the most probable to be affected by diseases that come from contaminated water from back flows.   There is nothing you can do about water backflow other than prevention using back flow prevention devices because its causes is beyond our control.

It is a requirement to install backflow devices and testing them on annual basis  in most areas.  It is important to occasionally test backflow prevention devices  because they have no protection benefits if they are not installed well or are faulty.  There is a penalization policy for not installing back flow prevention devices in some counties.  If you are in Santa Fe area of New Mexico USA, you can count on the backflow testing and repair companies such as Santa Fe back flow testingand Alberquequeback flow testing to for testing services. go to http://accreditedbackflowspecialists.com/backflow-repair-and-testing/

It is the function of the backflow preventer to make sure that water flows in one direction.  You can get different sizes and shapes  of backflow prevention devices which include the double-check valve backflow preventer and a reduced pressure zone backflow preventer.  The double check valve backflow preventer has a lot of check valves, some water release valves and air vents that make it easier to check their functionability.  Some backflow prevention devices can be easy to install but it is better to have the installation done by a licensed plumber. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backflow_prevention_device

There is a lot of emphasis to landscapers and irrigation businesses that are connected to main public water supply grid to have the installation of backflow prevention devices.  For irrigation businesses, It can be fatal if pesticides flow back to your property water supply which is used in household activities such as drinking and cooking.  The water supplying authorities and the local governments  have the responsibility ensuring water consumers are protected from backflows by ensuring the inspection of the backflow prevention devices.
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